Reliability and factor structure of the Attitude Toward Tutoring Agent Scale (ATTAS)
Amy B. Adcock, Old Dominion University, United States ; Richard N. Van Eck, University of North Dakota, United States
Journal of Interactive Learning Research Volume 16, Number 2, ISSN 1093-023X Publisher: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE), Waynesville, NC
Pedagogical agents are gaining acceptance as effective learning tools (Baylor & Ryu, 2003; Moreno, Mayer, Spires & Lester 2001; Moreno, 2004). The increase in the use of agents highlights the need for standardized measurements for evaluating user performance in these environments. While learning gains are a primary variable of interest in such environments, the role of affective variables may be at least as important as learning gains (Anderson, 1995; Bardwell, 1984; Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt, 1992; Kort, Reilly, & Picard, 2001). The purpose of this research was to design and validate an instrument, the Attitude Toward Tutoring Agent Scale (ATTAS), to measure users' perception of pedagogical agents who use conversational dialog to teach (i.e., as tutors). Items were developed from existing higher education teacher rating scales. Scale items were administered to 129 participants from three large urban universities in the south and northwest after interactions with AutoTutor, an animated pedagogical agent designed to teach conceptual physics. Results of factor analysis indicate a scale with three constructs: (a) conversation/pedagogy, (b) attitude toward student, and (c) student interest/attention. Reliability analyses showed strong reliability coefficients for each construct (alphas of .84, .87 and .89, respectively). Scales may be used independently or together in pedagogical agent tutoring environments.
Adcock, A.B. & Van Eck, R.N. (2005). Reliability and factor structure of the Attitude Toward Tutoring Agent Scale (ATTAS). Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 16(2), 195-217. Norfolk, VA: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE).
© 2005 Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE)
- computer mediated communication
- computer-based training
- educational multimedia
- Educational Technology
- Human Computer Interaction
- human-computer interaction
- intelligent tutoring systems
- interactive learning
- interactive multimedia systems
- Research Methods