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Paper-and-Pencil or Online? Evaluating Coping and Attachment Measures

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American Psychological Association Annual Meeting,


In recent years many researchers, clinicians, and testing companies have shifted from paper-and-pencil to computer administrated tests of psychological measures. This paper explores the feasibility of using the Internet to collect data from the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA), the Negative Mood Rating Scale (NMRS), and the Trait Meta-Mood Scale (TMMS) to assess psychological functioning. Data were collected from college students (N=164) in upper division elective courses at a large southwestern university. The online sample consisted of 234 subjects between the ages of 19 and 30. The psychometric, distributional, and factor analytic results evidenced some differences between the respondents but in general, the results showed adequate internal consistency and construct validity of the scale scores for both modes of assessment. Findings are in congruence with other research and suggest the viability of administering psychological questionnaires via computer technology and the Internet. The results open doors for researchers and counselors to use information obtained from online assessments to examine links between attachment and emotional functioning. (Contains 53 references and 5 tables.) (JDM)


Fouladi, R.T., McCarthy, C.J. & Moller, N.P. (2001). Paper-and-Pencil or Online? Evaluating Coping and Attachment Measures. Presented at American Psychological Association Annual Meeting 2001. Retrieved November 28, 2021 from .

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