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The Use of ICT in Education: A Survey of Schools in Europe

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European Journal of Education Volume 48, Number 1, ISSN 0141-8211


The "Survey of Schools: ICT in education" commissioned in 2011 by the European Commission took place between January 2011 and November 2012, with data collection in autumn 2011. This article presents the main findings of the "Survey" based on over 190,000 questionnaire answers from students, teachers and head teachers in primary, lower and upper secondary schools randomly sampled. The article details the analytical framework design and the survey methodology implemented. It then presents the main "state of the art" indicators that have been built, concerning ICT infrastructure and access to it, frequency of students' ICT based activities during lessons, level of teachers' and students' confidence in their digital competences, their opinion about using ICT for teaching and learning, and the school strategies to support ICT integration in teaching and learning. The article also presents the main findings of the exploratory part of the analysis, introducing the concepts of "digitally supportive school," "digitally confident and supportive teacher" and "digitally confident and supportive student," estimating their respective proportion at EU level on average and by country and investigating whether high percentage of "digitally supportive schools" include high percentages of "digitally confident and positive teachers" and "students." A few recommendations for policy making at European, national, regional/local and institutional levels conclude the article. (Contains 6 notes and 6 figures.)


Wastiau, P., Blamire, R., Kearney, C., Quittre, V., Van de Gaer, E. & Monseur, C. (2013). The Use of ICT in Education: A Survey of Schools in Europe. European Journal of Education, 48(1), 11-27. Retrieved January 30, 2023 from .

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