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The effect of varied enhancements to animated instruction on tests measuring different educational objectives

, The Pennsylvania State University, United States

The Pennsylvania State University . Awarded


The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of varied enhancements to animated instruction on the achievement of different educational objectives in a self-paced and web-based instructional setting. Four different treatment groups that were examined were (1) Static Visual, (2) Animation Only, (3) Animation with Advance Organizers, and (4) Animation with Adjunct Questions and Feedback.

This study was conducted at The Pennsylvania State University. 93 volunteer students who were taking educational psychology courses were recruited as the sample population. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of the four treatment groups at the time the experiment was conducted. Students completed the instructional lesson at their own pace, followed by a series of four criterion tests, namely Drawing, Identification, Terminology and Comprehension. The fifth dependent measure was the Total Comprehension test which was the sum of the above four tests.

One way multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA) indicated that there were no statistically significant differences in achievement among students in each treatment group at the .05 level. Two conclusions are drawn from the current study. First, for the population of undergraduate, college-level students, in learning tasks with similar content and the types of learning objectives used in this study, there is no apparent advantage to incorporating animation into an instructional lesson. Second, even with instructional strategies such as advance organizers or adjunct questions and feedback embedded, the animation is not more effective. Students in this population can acquire this type of information equally well when only static visuals are provided. Future research in this area is needed.


Lin, C.L. The effect of varied enhancements to animated instruction on tests measuring different educational objectives. Ph.D. thesis, The Pennsylvania State University. Retrieved August 5, 2021 from .

This record was imported from ProQuest on October 23, 2013. [Original Record]

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