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Student outcomes and perceptions of instructors' demands and support in online and traditional classrooms


Internet and Higher Education Volume 9, Number 4, ISSN 1096-7516 Publisher: Elsevier Ltd


In this study, seven graduate students were interviewed and 187 (91 online; 96 traditional) graduate students were surveyed about perceptions of differences in instructors' demands and support and student' motivation, self-regulation, satisfaction, and perceptions of learning in these environments. Results indicated significant differences in students' perceptions on all variables except self-efficacy. Results indicated a strong effect for differences between perceived instructor affective support in online and traditional classrooms. Although students in traditional classrooms ranked instructors' affective support higher, the variable had a stronger relationship with online students' satisfaction. Differences between online and traditional students' reports of instructors' academic support, instructors' demands, and students' satisfaction were significant with medium effect sizes. Results are important because they provide information about students' perceptions of the differences in environments created by instructors that relate to students' affective outcomes.


Mullen, G.E. & Tallent-Runnels, M.K. (2006). Student outcomes and perceptions of instructors' demands and support in online and traditional classrooms. Internet and Higher Education, 9(4), 257-266. Elsevier Ltd. Retrieved December 9, 2022 from .

This record was imported from Internet and Higher Education on January 29, 2019. Internet and Higher Education is a publication of Elsevier.

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