You are here:

All or Nothing: Levels of Sociability of a Pedagogical Software Agent and its Impact on Student Perceptions and Learning
Article

, , Michigan State University, United States ; , Hanover College, United States

Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia Volume 14, Number 2, ISSN 1055-8896 Publisher: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE), Waynesville, NC USA

Abstract

This paper reports the results of an experimental study on multimedia learning environments, which investigated the impact that increasing the social behaviors of a pedagogical agent has on students' perceptions of social presence, their perceptions of the learning experience, and learning. Paradoxically, in this experiment students detected higher degrees of social presence in both the text only and the fully animated social agent conditions than students in the voice only and the static image of the agent with voice conditions. Furthermore, students had more positive perceptions of the learning experience in the text only condition. The results support the careful design of social behaviors for animated pedagogical agents if they are to be of educational value, otherwise, the use of agent technology can actually detract from the learning experience.

Citation

Hershey Dirkin, K., Mishra, P. & Altermatt, E. (2005). All or Nothing: Levels of Sociability of a Pedagogical Software Agent and its Impact on Student Perceptions and Learning. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 14(2), 113-127. Norfolk, VA: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE). Retrieved March 26, 2019 from .

Keywords

View References & Citations Map

References

  1. Atkinson, R. K. (2002). Optimizing learning from examples using animated pedagogical agents. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94(2), 416-427.
  2. Baylor, A. L. (2002). Expanding preservice teachers’ metacognitive awareness of instructional planning through pedagogical agents. Educational Technology Research & Development, 50(2), 5-22.
  3. Baylor, A., & Ryu, J. (2003). The effects of image and animation in enhancing pedagogical agent persona. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 28(4), 373-395.
  4. Baylor, A. L., & Ebbers, S. (2003, June). The pedagogical agent split-persona effect: When two agents are better than one. Paper presented at the ED-MEDIA conference, Honolulu, Hawaii.
  5. Johnson, W. L., Rickel, J. W., & Lester, J. C. (2000). Animated pedagogical agents: Face-to-face interaction in interactive learning environments. International Journal of Artifi cial Intelligence in Education, 11, 47-78.
  6. Lester, J., Converse, S., Kahler, S., Barlow, T., Stone, B., & Bhogal, R. (1997). The persona effect: Affective impact of animated pedagogical agents. Paper presented at the Proceedings of CHI ‘97 (Human Factors in Computing Systems), New York.
  7. Lester, J., Converse, S., Stone, B. A., Kahler, S. E., & Barlow, S. T. (1997). Animated pedagogical agents and problem-solving effectiveness: A large-scale empirical evaluation. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the Eighth World Conference on Artifi cial Intelligence in Education, Kobe, Japan. Lombard, M., & Ditton, T. (1997). At the heart of it all: The concept of presence. 3(2), Available: http://www.ascusc.org/jcmc/vol3/issue2/lombard.html. Lombard, M., Ditton, T. B., Crane, D., Davis, B., Gil-Egui, G., Horvath, K., Rossman, J., & Park, S. (2000). Measuring presence: A literature-based approach to the development of a standardized paper-and-pencil instrument.
  8. Mayer, R. E. (1997). Multimedia learning: Are we asking the right questions? Educational Psychologist, 32, 1-19.
  9. Mayer, R. E., Heiser, J., & Lonn, S. (2001). Cognitive constraints on multimedia learning: When presenting more material results in less understanding. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93(1), 187-198.
  10. Mayer, R. E., & Moreno, R. (1998). A split-attention effect in multimedia learning: Evidence for dual processing systems in working memory. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90(2), 312-320.
  11. Mayer, R. E., Sobko, K., & Mautone, P. D. (2003). Social cues in multimedia learning: Role of speaker’s voice. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95(2), 419-425.
  12. Mishra, P., Nicholson, M., & Wojcikiewicz, S. (2003). Seeing ourselves in the computer: How we relate to technologies. In B. C. Bruce (Ed.), Literacy in the information age: Inquiries into meaning making with new technologies. (pp. 116-127) Newark, DE: International Reading Association. (Reprinted from Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy. 44 Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy. 44 Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy (7), 634-641).
  13. Moreno, R., & Mayer, R. E. (1999). Cognitive principles of multimedia learning: The role of modality and contiguity. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91(2), 358-368.
  14. Moreno, R., & Mayer, R. E. (2000). Engaging students in active learning: The case for personalized multimedia messages. Journal of Educational Psychology, 92(4), 724-733.
  15. Moreno, R., Mayer, R. E., Spires, H. A., & Lester, J. C. (2001). The case for social agency in computer-based teaching: Do students learn more deeply when they interact with animated pedagogical agents? Cognition & Instruction, 19(2), 177-213.
  16. Nass, C. I., Moon, Y., Morkes, J., Kim, E.-Y., & Fogg, B. J. (1997). Computers are social actors: A review of current research. In B. Friedman (Ed.), Human values and the design of computer technology. Cambridge: University Press. (pp. 137-163).
  17. Reeves, B., & Nass, C. I. (1996). The media equation: How people treat computers, television, and new media like real people and places. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.
  18. Short, J., Williams, E., & Christie, B. (1976). The social psychology of telecommunications. London: Wiley.
  19. Shuell, T. J. (1996). Teaching and learning in a classroom context. In D. C. Berliner & R. C. Calfee (Eds.), Handbook of educational psychology (pp. 726764). New York: Macmillan.
  20. Sweller, J. (1999). Instructional design in technical areas. Camberwell, Victoria, Australia: Australian Council for Educational Research.

These references have been extracted automatically and may have some errors. If you see a mistake in the references above, please contact info@learntechlib.org.

View References & Citations Map

Cited By

  1. Effects of Pedagogical Agent Gestures on Social Acceptance and Learning: Virtual Real Relationships in an Elementary Foreign Language Classroom

    Robert Davis, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, Korea (South); Pavlo Antonenko, University of Florida, United States

    Journal of Interactive Learning Research Vol. 28, No. 4 (October 2017) pp. 459–480

  2. Conversational Agents as Historical Figures: Individual Differences and Perceptions of Agent and Social Presence

    Bob Heller, Athabasca University, Canada

    EdMedia + Innovate Learning 2016 (Jun 28, 2016) pp. 1374–1380

  3. Pedagogical Agents and Learning: Are They Worth the Cost?

    Noah Schroeder, Rachel Barouch Gilbert & Olusola Adesope, Washington State University, United States

    E-Learn: World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education 2011 (Oct 18, 2011) pp. 2078–2083

  4. Narration in Multimedia Learning Environments: Exploring the Impact of Voice Origin, Gender, and Presentation mode

    Caroline Harrison & Atkinson Robert, Arizona State University, United States

    EdMedia + Innovate Learning 2009 (Jun 22, 2009) pp. 980–985

  5. Conversational Agents and Learning Outcomes: An Experimental Investigation

    Bob Heller & Mike Procter, Athabasca University, Canada

    EdMedia + Innovate Learning 2007 (Jun 25, 2007) pp. 945–950

  6. Affective Feedback from Computers and its Effect on Perceived Ability and Affect: A Test of the Computers as Social Actor Hypothesis

    Punya Mishra, Michigan State University, United States

    Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia Vol. 15, No. 1 (January 2006) pp. 107–131

These links are based on references which have been extracted automatically and may have some errors. If you see a mistake, please contact info@learntechlib.org.