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Effectiveness of Slowmation when used as a Desired Difficulty Construction Task in the Learning of Moon Phases

, SEAMEO RECSAM, Malaysia ; , , Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia

EdMedia + Innovate Learning, in Lisbon, Portugal ISBN 978-1-880094-89-1 Publisher: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE), Waynesville, NC


The effectiveness of Slowmation, a form of construction activity (Papert, 1990), was investigated in a self-directed online learning of the moon phases. One hundred and seventy one respondents from nine intact groups of pre-service primary school student teachers from four Malaysian teacher training institutes participated in this study. Slowmation was compared to the control group, Paper Sketch, and effectiveness was determined in terms of conceptual understanding and motivation (Keller, 1987). Data was analysed using MANCOVA. Both Paper Sketch and Slowmation when used as desired difficulty tasks resulted in greater conceptual understanding of the moon phases and moderately positive perceived motivation. The Slowmation group had higher conceptual understanding of the moon phases and had more positive motivation than the Paper Sketch group. However it was only significant for motivation. Implications of this study are discussed.


Robert Peter, D., Seong Chong, T. & Abbas, M. (2011). Effectiveness of Slowmation when used as a Desired Difficulty Construction Task in the Learning of Moon Phases. In T. Bastiaens & M. Ebner (Eds.), Proceedings of ED-MEDIA 2011--World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia & Telecommunications (pp. 3690-3699). Lisbon, Portugal: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE). Retrieved March 19, 2019 from .


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