Self-directed Learning vs Self-regulated Learning: Twins or Just Friends?
Pamela Bracey, University of North Texas, United States
E-Learn: World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education, in Orlando, Florida, USA ISBN 978-1-880094-83-9 Publisher: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE), San Diego, CA
The rise in online education has sparked researchers’ interests in effective learning and instructional strategies of web-based training. Thus, understanding the characteristics and enhancing factors of self-regulated or self-directed learners has become a primary goal of institutions of higher education. The following review of literature provides a wealth of information to assist students, instructors, course designers, and parents in understanding the relationship between the terms “self-regulated learner” and “self-directed learner,” as well as the significance of this type of learner in today’s technologically advanced economy.
Bracey, P. (2010). Self-directed Learning vs Self-regulated Learning: Twins or Just Friends?. In J. Sanchez & K. Zhang (Eds.), Proceedings of E-Learn 2010--World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education (pp. 1600-1607). Orlando, Florida, USA: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE). Retrieved March 25, 2019 from https://www.learntechlib.org/primary/p/35780/.
© 2010 Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE)
- Bereiter, C., & Scardamalia, M. (1986). Educational relevance of the study of expertise. Interchange, 17, 10 – 19.
- Biemiller, A., & Meichenbaum, D. (1992). The nature and nurture of the self-directed learner. Educational Leadership, (Oct), 75 – 80.
- Bloom, B.S. (1956). A taxonomy of educational objectives: The classification of educational goals. New York: D. McKay.
- Brockett, R.G. & Hiemstra, R. (1991). Self-direction in adult learning. Perspectives on theory, research, and practice. London: Routledge.
- Bruin, K. (2007). The relationship between personality traits and self-directed learning readiness in higher education students. SAJHE, 21(2), 228 – 240.
- Candy, P.C. (1991). Self-direction for lifelong learning. San Fransisco: Jossey-Bass.
- Collins, A. (2006). How society can foster self-directed learning. Human Development, 49, 225 – 228. Horner, S. & O’Conner, E. (2007). Introduction: Helping beginning and struggling readers and writers to develop self-regulated strategies. Reading& Writing Quarterly, 23, 1 – 5.
- Conrad, R. & Donaldson, J. (2004). Engaging the online learner: Activities and resources for creative instruction. San Fransisco, CA: Joseey-Bass.
- Covington, M.V. (1992). Making the grade: A self-worth perspective on motivation and school reform. New York: Cambridge.
- Danis, C. (1992). Advances in research and practice in self-directed learning. In G.J. Confessore & S.U. Confessore (Eds.), Guideposts to self-directed learning. King of Prussia, PA: Organization Design and Development.
- Dynan, L., Cate, T. & Rhee, K. (2008). The impact of learning structure on student’s readiness for self-directed learning. Journal of Education for Business, (Nov/Dec), 96-100.
- Friedrich, H.F. & Mandl, H. (1997). Analysis and facilitation of self-regulated learning.
- Garrison, D.R. (1997). Self-directed learning: Toward a comprehensive model. Adult Education Quarterly, 48 (1), 18 – 33.
- Graham, S., Harris, K.R. & Troia, G.A. (1998). Writing and self-regulation: Cases from the self-regulated strategy development model, in D.H. Schunk & B.J. Zimmerman (Eds.) Self-regulated Learning, From Teaching to Self-reflective Practice. New York: The Guildford Press.
- Guglielmino, P.J. (1977) Development of the self-directed. Adult Education Quarterly, 41, 125 – 147.
- Hanna, D.E., Dudka, M.G., & Runlee, S.C. (2000). 147 practical tips for teaching online groups: Essentials of web-based education. Madison, WI: Atwood.
- Hatcher, T.G. (1997). The ins and outs of self-directed learning. Training and Development, 51 (2), 34 – 39.
- Hofer, B., Yu, S.L. & Pintrich, P. (1998). Teaching college students to be self-regulated learners, in: D.H. Schunk & B.J. Zimmerman (Eds) Self-regulated Learning, From Teaching to Self-reflective Practice. New York: The Guildford Press.
- Katabulut, U.S. (2002). Curricular elements of problem-based learning that cause developments of self-directed learning behaviors among students and its implications on elementary education. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville.
- Kember, D. (1997). A reconceptualisation of the research into university academics’ conceptions of teaching, Learning and Instruction, 7, 255 – 275.
- Kitsantas, A., & Zimmerman, B.J. (1998). Self-regulation of motoric learning: A strategic cycle view. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 10, 220 – 239.
- Kitsantas, A., Reise, R., & Doster, J. (2004). Developing self-regulated learners: goal setting, self-evaluation, and organizational signals during acquisition of procedural skills. The Journal of Experimental Education, 72(4), 269 – 287.
- Knowles, M.S. (1975). Self-directed learning: A guide for learners and teachers. New York: Association Press.
- Knowles, M.S., Holton, E.F., & Swanson, R.A. (1998). The adult learner: The definitive classic in adult education and human resource development. Houston, TX: Gulf.
- Lamdin, L. (1997). Elderlearning. Phoenix, AZ: The Oryz Press.
- Lee, P., Hamman, D., Lee, C. (2007). The relationship of family closeness with college students’ self-regulated learning and school adjustment. College Student Journal, 4, 779 – 787.
- Lee, T., Shen, P., & Tsai, C. (2007). Enhancing computer skills of low-achieving students via E-learning: A design experiment of web-based, problem-based learning and self-regulated learning. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 11, 431 – 436.
- McKeachie, W.J., Pintrich, P.R., & Lin, Y. (1985). Teaching learning strategies. Educational Psychologist, 20, 153 – 160.
- Muis, K. (2007). The role of epistemic beliefs in self-regulated learning. Educational Psychology, 42, 173 – 190.
- Magolda, M. (2007). Supporting self-directed learning. About Campus, 12(5).
- Martin, J. (2004). Self-regulated learning, social cognitive theory, and agency. Educational Psychologist, 39 (2), 135 – 145.
- Ng, W. (2008). Self-directed learning with web-based sites: How well do students’ perceptions and thinking match with their teachers? Teaching Science, 54(2), 24 – 30.
- Paris, S.C. & Paris, A.H. (2001). Classroom applications of research on self-regulated learning. Educational Psychologist, 36, 89 – 101.
- Paris, S.G. & Byrnes, J.P. (1989). The constructivist approach to self-regulation and learning in the classroom in: B.J. Zimmerman& D.H. Schunk (Eds) Self-regulated Learning and Academic Achievement: Theory, research, and practice. New York: Springer.
- Perry, N.E., Vandekamp, K.O., Mercer, L.K., & Nordby, C.J. (2002). Investigating teacher-student interactions that foster self-regulated leraning. Educational Psychologist, 37, 5 – 15.
- Perry, N.E. (1998). Yount children’s self-regulated learning and the contexts that promote it. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90, 715 – 729.
- Perry, N.E., & Winne, P. (2006). Learning from learning kits: gStudy traces of students’ self-regulated engagements with computerized content. Educational Psychology Review, 18, 211 – 228.
- Pintrich, P.R. & De Groot, E.V. (1990). Motivation in education: Theory, research and applications. Englewood Cliffs, NY: Merrill.
- Piskurich, G. (1996). Self-directed learning. In R. Craig (Ed.), The ASTD Training& Development Handbook (4th ed., pp. 453 –
- Schunk, D.H. & Zimmerman, B.J. (1998). Self-regulated learning, from teaching to self-reflective practice. New York: Guilford Press.
- Schunk, D.H., & Zimmerman, B.J. (Eds.) (1997). Social origins of self-regulatory competence. Educational Psychologist, 32, 195 – 208.
- Schunk, D.H., & Schwartz, C.W. (1993). Goals and progress feedback: Effects on self-efficacy and writing achievement. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 18, 337 – 354.
- Siaw, S.C. (2002). Fostering self-directed learning readiness by way of PBL intervention in business education. Online Proceedings of 2nd Asia-Pacific conference on Problem-Based Learning. Singapore.
- Sinitsa, K. (2000). Learning individually: a life-long perspective. Educational Technology& Society, 3 (1), 17 – 23.
- Steffens, K. (2006). Self-regulated learning in technology-enhanced learning environments: lessons of a European peer review. European Journal of Education, 41, pp. 353 – 373.
- Terry, M. (2006). Self-directed learning by undereducated adults. Educational Research Quarterly, 29 (4), 28 – 38.
- Vermunt, J.D. & Verschaffel, L. (2000). Process-oriented teaching, in P.R.J. Simons, J. Van Linden& T. Duffy (Eds). New learning. The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic.
- Weinert, F.E. (1982). Self-regulated learning as prerequisite, method and objective of instruction.
- Winne, P.H. (1995). Inherent details in self-regulated learning. Educational Psychologist, 30, 173 – 187.
- Winne, P.H. & Hadwin, A.F. (1998). Studying as self-regulated learning, in: D.J. Hacker, J. Dunlosky, & A.C. Graesser (Eds) Metacognition in Educational Theory and Practice. Mahway, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
- Zimmerman, B.J. (2000). Attainment of self-regulation: A social cognitive perspective. In M. Boekaerts, P. Pintrich, & M. Zeidner (Eds.), Self-regulation: Theory, research, and applications (pp. 13 – 39). Orlando, FL: Academic Press.
- Zimmerman, B.J. & Schunk, D.H. (2001). Self-regulated learning and academic achievement. Mahway, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
- Zimmerman, B.J. (2002). Achieving self-regulation: The trial and triumph of adolescence. In F. Pajares & T. Urdan (Eds.), Academic motivation of adolescents (vol. 2, pp. 1 – 27). Greenwich, CT: Information Age.
- Zimmerman, B.J. & Schunk, D.H. (2003). Albert Bandura: the scholar and his contributions to educational psychology. In B.J. Zimmerman& D.H. Schunk (Eds.), Educational psychology: A century of contributions (pp. 431 – 458). Mahwah, NJ:
- Zimmerman, B.J. & Kitsantas, A. (1999). Acquiring writing revision skill: Shifting from process to outcome self-regulatory goals. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91, 1 – 10.
- Zimmerman, B.J. (1995) Self-regulation involves more than metacognition: A social cognitive perspective, Educational Psychologist, 30, pp. 217 – 221.
- Zimmerman, B.J. (1998). Academic studying and the development of personal skills: A self-regulatory perspective, Educational Psychologist, 33, pp. 73 – 86.
These references have been extracted automatically and may have some errors. If you see a mistake in the references above, please contact email@example.com.
Research priorities in mobile learning: An international Delphi study / Les priorités de recherche en matière d'apprentissage mobile: Une étude de Delphes internationale
Yu-Chang Hsu, Yu-Hui Ching & Chareen Snelson
Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology / La revue canadienne de l’apprentissage et de la technologie Vol. 40, No. 2 (May 16, 2014)
These links are based on references which have been extracted automatically and may have some errors. If you see a mistake, please contact firstname.lastname@example.org.