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Temporal, but not Spatial, Contiguity Effects While Studying an Interactive Geographic Map

, , , , Texas Tech University, United States

Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia Volume 17, Number 2, ISSN 1055-8896 Publisher: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE), Waynesville, NC USA


In two experiments we investigated the effects of temporal and spatial contiguity on learning from a computer-based geographic map and associated text. In Experiment 1, participants were randomly assigned to conditions that presented text either contiguous to (temporal or spatiotemporal) or noncontiguous to corresponding map features. The results showed that participants studying facts temporally or spatiotemporally contiguous to map features recalled more facts and made more accurate inferences than those studying facts not contiguous to map features. However, spatial contiguity did not affect learning beyond the effects of temporal contiguity alone. The temporal contiguity effect was replicated in Experiment 2 when facts were contiguous to map labels and markers, but not when facts were contiguous to just markers. These results contribute to the literature by showing the relative effects of temporal and spatial contiguity and by demonstrating the conditions that facilitate contiguity effects in computer-based geography instruction.


Crooks, S., White, D., Srinivasan, S. & Wang, Q. (2008). Temporal, but not Spatial, Contiguity Effects While Studying an Interactive Geographic Map. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 17(2), 145-169. Waynesville, NC USA: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE). Retrieved March 24, 2019 from .


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