AACE Journal Volume 11, Number 1, ISSN 1065-6901 Publisher: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE), Chesapeake, VA
This article relates findings from a review of the literature on six motivational constructs studied in traditional environments to online education concepts to identify methods for ensuring student success in online courses. The six motivational constructs are (a) self-efficacy, (b) locus of control, (c) attributions, (d) goal orientation, (e) intrinsic versus extrinsic motivation, and (f) self-regulation. The six motivational constructs have been thoroughly investigated in traditional face-to-face classrooms and in a wide variety of educational disciplines. Very few studies, however, have explored the significance of the constructs in the online environment. The purpose of this article is to discuss the areas of online education and academic motivation, and to suggest methods for ensuring student success in the online environment based upon the findings of the literature review.
Miltiadou, M. & Savenye, W.C. (2003). Applying Social Cognitive Constructs of Motivation to Enhance Student Success in Online Distance Education. AACE Journal, 11(1), 78-95. Norfolk, VA: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE). Retrieved March 25, 2019 from https://www.learntechlib.org/primary/p/17795/.
© 2003 Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE)
- Ames, C. (1984). Achievement attributions and self-instructions under competitive and individualistic goal structures. Journal of Educational Psychology, 76, 478-487.
- Ames, C., & Archer, J. (1988). Achievement goals in the classroom: Students’ learning strategies and motivation processes. Journal of Educational Psychology, 80, 260-267.
- Anderman, E.M. (1992). Motivation and cognitive strategy use in reading and writing. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 374 402)
- Anderman, E.M., & Midgley, C. (1992). Student self-efficacy as a function of classroom goal orientation. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 375 367)
- Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
- Bandura, A. (1993). Perceived self-efficacy in cognitive functioning. Educational Psychologist, 28, 117-148.
- Bandura, A., Adams, N.E., & Beyer, J. (1977). Cognitive processes mediating behavioral change. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35, 125-139.
- Berge, Z.L., & Collins, M.P. (1995). Introduction. In Z.L. Berge& M.P. Collins (Eds.), Computer Mediated Communication and the Online Classroom-Volume I: Overview and Perspectives (pp. 1-12). Cresskill, NJ:
- Deci, E.L., & Ryan, R.M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York: Plenum Press.
- Dick, W., & Carey, L. (1990). The systematic design of instruction (3rd Ed.). New York: Scott Foresman.
- Diener, C., & Dweck, C.S. (1978). An analysis of learned helplessness: Continuous changes in performance, strategy, and achievement cognitions following failure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36, 451-462.
- Dille, B., & Mezack, M. (1991). Identifying predictors of high risk among community college telecourse students. The American Journal of Distance Education, 5(1), 24-35.
- Dweck, C.S. (1986). Motivational processes affecting learning. American Psychologist, 41, 1040-1048.
- Dweck, C.S., & Elliot, E.S. (1983). Achievement motivation. In P.H. Mussen & E.M. Hetherington (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology (Volume IV: Social and personality development, pp. 643-691). New York: Wiley.
- Dweck, C.S., & Leggett, E.L. (1988). A social-cognitive approach to motivation and personality. Psychological Review, 95, 256-273.
- Eastmond, J.N., & Elwell, C.C. (1994). The distance education French Project: Evaluation reports 1 and 2. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 375 661)
- Eastmond, D., & Ziegahn, L. (1995). Instructional design for the online classroom. In Z. Berge& M. Collins (Eds.), Computer-mediated communication and the online classroom. (Vol. 3, pp. 59-80). Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.
- Eccles, J., & Wigfield, A. (1985). Teacher expectations and student motivation. In J.B. Dusek (Ed.), Teacher expectancies (pp. 185-226). Hillsdale, NJ:
- Freud, S. (1915). A general introduction to psychoanalysis. New York: Washington Square.
- Gagne, R.M., Briggs, L.J., & Wager. W.W. (1992). Principles of instructional design, (4th Ed.). Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt, Brace.
- Garcia, T. (1995). The role of motivational strategies in self-regulated learning. In P.R. Pintrich (Ed.), New directions for college teaching and learning: Self-regulated learning in the college classroom (pp. 29-42). San Francisco:
- Greene, B., & Miller, R. (1996). Influences on achievement: Goals, perceived ability, and cognitive engagement. Journal of Contemporary Psychology,
- Hagen, A.S., & Weistein, C.E. (1995). Achievement goals, self-regulated learning, and the role of the classroom context. In P.R. Pintrich (Ed.), Understanding self-regulated learning (Vol. 63, pp. 43-55). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
- Hannafin, M.J., Hall, C., Land, S., & Hill, J. (1994, October). Learning in open-ended environments: Assumptions, methods, and implications. Educational Technology, 48-55.
- Hannafin, M.J., & Land, S.M. (1997). The foundations and assumptions of technology-enhanced student-centered learning environments. Instructional Science, 25, 167-202.
- Harasim, L.M. (1996). Online education: The future. In T.M. Harrison& T. Stephen (Eds.), Computer networking and scholarly communication in the twenty-first century (pp. 203-214). New York: State University of New
- Hillman, D.C., Willis, D.J., & Gunawardena, C.N. (1994). Learner-interface interaction in distance education: An extension of contemporary models and strategies for practitioners. The American Journal of Distance Education, 8(2), 31-42.
- Hirumi, A., & Bermudez, A. (1996). Interactivity, distance education and in-s truc t iona l systems design converge on the information superhighway. Journal of Research on Computing in Education, 29(1), 1-16.
- Holmberg, B. (1989). Theory and practice of distance education. London: Routledge.
- Hull, C.L. (1943). Principles of behavior. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
- Jagacinski, C., & Nicholls, J. (1987). Competence and affect in task involvement and ego involvement: The impact of social comparison information. Journal of Educational Psychology, 79, 107-114.
- Johnston, J.P. (1997). Weaving a syllaweb: Consideration before constructing an on-line syllabus. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 412 937)
- Kearsley, G. (1995). The nature and value of interaction in distance learning. Retrieved September 5, 2000 from: http://www.gwu.edu/~etl/interact.html
- Keegan, D. (1988). Problems in defining the field of distance education. The American Journal of Distance Education, 2(2), 4-11.
- Keller, J (1987). Development and use of the ARCS model of instructional design. Journal of Instructional Development, 10(3), 2-10.
- Locke, E.A. (1996). Motivation through conscious goal setting. Applied and Preventive Psychology, 5, 117-124.
- Locke, E.A., Frederick, E., Lee, C., & Bobko, P. (1984). Effect of self-efficacy, goals, and task strategies on task performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 69, 241-251.
- Locke, E.A., & Latham, G.P. (1990). A theory of goal setting and task performance. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
- Maehr, M.L. (1984). Meaning and motivation: Toward a theory of personal investment. In R. Ames & C. Ames (Eds.), Research on motivation in education (Volume 1: Student Motivation, pp. 115-144). New York: Academic Press.
- Maehr, M.L., & Braskamp, L. (1986). The motivation factor: A theory of personal investment. Lexington, MA: Heath.
- Maehr, M.L., & Midgley, C. (1991). Enhancing student motivation: A schoolwide approach. Educational Psychologist, 26, 399-427.
- McIsaac, M.S., & Gunawardena, C.N. (1996). Distance Education. In D.H. Jonassen (Ed.), Handbook of research for educational communications and technology: a project of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (pp. 403-437). New York: Simon& Schuster Macmillan.
- Maslow, A.H. (1954). Motivation and personality. New York: Harper& Row.
- Meece, J.L., Blumenfeld, P., & Hoyle, R. (1988). Students’ goal orientations and cognitive engagement in classroom activities. Journal of Educational Psychology, 80, 514-523.
- Meece, J.L., & Holt, K. (1993). A pattern analysis of student’s achievement goals. Journal of Educational Psychology, 85, 582-590.
- Miller, R., Behrens, J., Greene, B., & Newman, D. (1993). Goals and perceived ability: Impact on student valuing, self-regulation, and persistence. Contemporary Psychology, 18, 2-19.
- Moore, M.G. (1989). Three types of interaction. The American Journal of Distance Education, 3(2), 1-6.
- Multon, K.D., Brown, S.D., & Lent, R.W. (1991). Relation of self-efficacy beliefs to academic outcomes: A meta-analytic investigation. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 38(1), 30-38.
- Nicholls, J. (1989). The competitive ethos and democratic education. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
- Nicholls, J., & Miller, R. (1994). Cooperative learning and student motivation. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 19, 167-178.
- Nicholls, J., Patashnick, M., & Nolen, S. (1985). Adolescents’ theories of education. Journal of Educational Psychology, 77, 683-692.
- Nolen, S.B. (1988). Reasons for studying motivational orientations and study strategies. Cognition and Instruction, 5, 269-287.
- Pajares, F., & Miller, M.D. (1994). Role of self-efficacy and self-concept beliefs in mathematical problem solving: A path analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 86, 193-203.
- Parker, A. (1994). Locus of control, demographics and mode of delivery as predictors of dropout from distance education. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Arizona State University, Tempe.
- Parker, A. (1999). Interaction in distance education: The critical conversation. Educational Technology Review, 12(3), 13-17.
- Payne, O.L. (1992). The effects of learning strategies on a group of black secondary students’ verbal and mathematics SAT scores. (ERIC Document
- Pintrich, P.R. (1989). The dynamic interplay of student motivation and cognition in the college environment. In C. Ames, & M. Maehr (Eds.), Advances in motivation and achievement: Motivation-enhancing environments (Vol. 6, pp. 117-160). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
- Pintrich, P.R., & De Groot, E.V. (1990). Motivational and self-regulated learning components of classroom academic performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82(1), 33-40.
- Pintrich, P.R., & Garcia, T. (1991). Student goal orientation and self-regulation in the college classroom. In M.L. Maehr & P.R. Pintrich (Eds.), Advances in motivation and achievement: Goals and self-regulatory processes (Vol. 7, pp. 371-402). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
- Pintrich, P.R., & Schunk, D.H. (1996). Motivation in education: Theory, research, and practice. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
- Pintrich, P.R., Smith, D.A.F., Garcia, T., & McKeachie, W.J. (1991). A manual for the use of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ). Ann Arbor, MI: National Center for Research to Improve Postsecondary Teaching and Learning. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 338 122)
- Porter, L.A. (1997). Creating the virtual classroom: Distance learning with the Internet. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
- Randhawa, B.S., Beamer, J.E., & Lundberg, I. (1993). Role of mathematics self-efficacy in the structural model of mathematics achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 85(1), 41-48.
- Riel, M. (1993). Learning circles: Virtual communities for elementary and secondary schools. Retrieved September 4 , 2000 from: http://www.ed.uiuc.edu/Guidelines/Riel-93.html Riel , M. , & Harasim , L. (1994). Research perspectives on network learning. Machine Mediated Learning, 4(2-3), 91-113.
- Ritchie, D.C., & Hoffman, B. (1997). Using instructional design principles to amplify learning on the WorldWide Web. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 415 835.
- Romiszowski, A.J. & Mason, R. (1996). Computer-mediated communication. In D.H. Jonassen (Ed.), Handbook of research for educational communications and technology (pp. 438-456). New York: Simon& Schuster Macmillan.
- Ross, A.R. (1996). The influence of computer communication skills on participation in a computer conferencing course. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 15(1), 37-52.
- Rotter, J.B. (1966). Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement. Psychological Monographs, 80(Whole No. 609).
- Savenye, W. (1999, June). Delivering technology education to teachers via webbased distance learning. Paper presented at the annual meeting of ED-MEDIA, Seattle, WA.
- Schunk, D.H. (1981). Modeling and attributional effects on children’s achievement: A self-efficacy analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 73, 93-105.
- Schunk, D.H. (1989). Self-efficacy and cognitive achievement: Implications for
- Schunk, D.H. (1991). Self-efficacy and academic motivation. Educational Psychologist, 26, 207-231.
- Schunk, D.H. (1995). Learning goals and self-evaluation: Effects on children’s cognitive skill acquisition. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 389 385)
- Shell, D.F., Colvin, C., & Brunning, R.H. (1995). Self-efficacy, attribution, and outcome expectancy mechanisms in reading and writing achievement: Grade level and achievement-level differences. Journal of Educational Psychology, 87, 386-398.
- Smith, P.J., & Ragan, T.J. (1999). Instructional Design, (2nd Ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill/Prentice Hall. Starr, R.M. (1997, May-June). Delivering instruction on the WorldWide Web: Overview and basic design principles. Educational Technology, 7-15.
- Stipek, D. (1988). Motivation to learn: From theory to practice (2nd Ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
- Stumpf, S.A., Brief, A.P., & Hartman, K. (1987). Self-efficacy expectations and coping with career-related events. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 31(2), 91-108.
- Talbot, G.L. (1997). Helping teachers and students talk about learning strategies for teacher-made tests and assignments. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 411 203)
- Tsui, A.B.M, & Ki, W.W. (1996). An analysis of conference interactions on Telenex-A computer network for ESL teachers. Educational Technology Research and Development, 44(4), 23-44.
- Tuckman, B.W. (1993). Motivational components of college students’ performance and productivity. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 432 712)
- Urdan, T., Pajares, F., & Lapin, A. (1997). Achievement goals, motivation, and performance: A closer look. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 412 268)
- Verduin, J.R.J., & Clark, T.A. (1991). Distance education: The foundations of effective practice. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
- Vrasidas, C., & McIsaac, M.S. (1999). Factors influencing interaction in an online course. The American Journal of Distance Education, 13(3), 22-35.
- Weiner, B. (1986). An attributional theory of motivation and emotion. New York: Springer-Verlag.
- Weiner, B. (1990). History of motivational research in education. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 616-622.
- Western Governors University (2000). Western Governors University. Retrieved September 4, 2000 from: http://www.wgu.edu/wgu/index.html
- Winne, P.H. (1995). Inherent details in self-regulated learning. Educational
- Wyatt, D., Pressley, M., El-Dinary, P.B., Stein, S., Evans, P., & Brown, R. (1993). Comprehension strategies, worth and credibility monitoring and evaluations: Cold and hot cognition when experts read professional articles that are important to them. Learning and Individual Differences, 5, 49-72.
- Zimmerman, B.J. (1986). Becoming a self-regulated learner: Which are the key subprocesses? Contemporary Educational Psychology, 11, 307-313.
- Zimmerman, B.J. (1989). Models of self-regulated learning and academic achievement. In B.J. Zimmerman& D.H. Schunk (Eds.), Self-regulated learning and academic achievement: Theory, research, and practice (pp. 125).
- Zimmerman, B.J., Bandura, A., & Martinez-Pons, M. (1992). Motivation for academic attainment: The role of self-efficacy beliefs and personal goal setting. American Educational Research Journal, 29, 663-676.
- Zimmerman, B.J., & Martinez-Pons, M. (1986). Development of a structured interview for assessing student use of self-regulated learning strategies. American Educational Research Journal, 23, 614-628.
- Zimmerman, B.J., & Martinez-Pons, M. (1988). Construct validation of a strategy model of student self-regulated learning. Journal of Educational
These references have been extracted automatically and may have some errors. If you see a mistake in the references above, please contact email@example.com.
Anna Martin, Kent State University, United States
EdMedia + Innovate Learning 2014 (Jun 23, 2014) pp. 2631–2636
Jackie Booth, Keiser University Graduate School, United States; Brian Keintz, Keiser University, United States
Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference 2013 (Mar 25, 2013) pp. 1261–1266
Effectiveness of Observational Learning as an Alternate to Traditional Instruction in the Online Medium
Khawaja Zain-ul-abdin & Mariliis Vahe, Florida State University, United States
EdMedia + Innovate Learning 2011 (Jun 27, 2011) pp. 1283–1288
Examining Self-regulated Learning in Post secondary Learners through Problem based Learning (PBL) and Game play
Anjum Najmi & Debbie Blackwell, UNT, United States; Scott J Warren, unt, United States
Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference 2011 (Mar 07, 2011) pp. 575–582
Best Practices in eLearning that Increase Social Presence and Teacher Immediacy in Large Blended Classes
Glenda Gunter & Robert Kenny, University of Central Florida, United States
E-Learn: World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education 2010 (Oct 18, 2010) pp. 1732–1737
Victoria Rath & Glenda Gunter, PhD, University of Central Florida, United States; Junia de Carvaho Fidelis Braga, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Brazil
E-Learn: World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education 2010 (Oct 18, 2010) pp. 770–775
Semantic PowerPoint: Content and Semantic Technology for Educational Added-Value Services in MS PowerPoint
Andrea Kohlhase, Jacobs University Bremen, University Bremen, Germany
EdMedia + Innovate Learning 2007 (Jun 25, 2007) pp. 3576–3583
Andrea Kohlhase, DiMeB (Digital Media in Education), University Bremen, Germany
Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference 2007 (Mar 26, 2007) pp. 2026–2028
These links are based on references which have been extracted automatically and may have some errors. If you see a mistake, please contact firstname.lastname@example.org.