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Introducing the R2D2 Model: Online Learning for the Diverse Learners of This World


Distance Education Volume 27, Number 2, ISSN 0158-7919


The R2D2 method--read, reflect, display, and do--is a new model for designing and delivering distance education, and in particular, online learning. Such a model is especially important to address the diverse preferences of online learners of varied generations and varied Internet familiarity. Four quadrants can be utilized separately or as part of a problem-solving process: the first component primarily relates to methods to help learners acquire knowledge through online readings, virtual explorations, and listening to online lectures and podcasts. As such, it addresses verbal and auditory learners. The second component of the model focuses on reflective activities such as online blogs, reflective writing tasks, self-check examinations, and electronic portfolios. In the third quadrant, visual representations of the content are highlighted with techniques such as virtual tours, timelines, animations, and concept maps. Fourth, the model emphasizes what learners can do with the content in hands-on activities including simulations, scenarios, and real-time cases. In effect, the R2D2 model is one means to organize and make sense of the diverse array of instructional possibilities currently available in distance education. It provides new ways of learning for diverse online students, and demonstrates easy-to-apply learning activities for instructors to integrate various technologies in online learning. When thoughtfully designed, content delivered from this perspective should be more enriching for learners. The R2D2 model provides a framework for more engaging, dynamic, and responsive teaching and learning in online environments. (Contains 1 table and 1 note.)


Bonk, C.J. & Zhang, K. (2006). Introducing the R2D2 Model: Online Learning for the Diverse Learners of This World. Distance Education, 27(2), 249-264. Retrieved November 1, 2020 from .

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