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The Development of a Questionnaire for Predicting Online Learning Achievement

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Distance Education Volume 25, Number 1, ISSN 0158-7919


The study reported here concerns the development and predictive validation of an instrument to assess the achievement outcomes of DE/online learning success. A 38-item questionnaire was developed and administered to 167 students who were about to embark on an online course. Factor analysis indicated a four-factor solution, interpreted as “general beliefs about DE,” “confidence in prerequisite skills,” “self-direction and initiative” and “desire for interaction.” Using multiple regression we found that two of these factors predicted achievement performance (i.e., Cumulative Course Grade). Comparisons of pretest and posttest administrations of the questionnaire revealed that some changes in opinion occurred between the beginning and the end of the course. Also, categories of demographic characteristics were compared on the four factors. The overall results suggest that this instrument has some predictive validity in terms of achievement, but that Cumulative Grade Point Average (i.e., the university's record of overall achievement) is a much better predictor.


Bernard, R.M., Brauer, A., Abrami, P.C. & Surkes, M. (2004). The Development of a Questionnaire for Predicting Online Learning Achievement. Distance Education, 25(1), 31-47. Retrieved February 17, 2019 from .

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