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A Learning Design Ontology Based on the IMS Specification

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Journal of Educational Technology & Society Volume 9, Number 1, ISSN 1176-3647 e-ISSN 1176-3647


In this paper, we present an ontology to represent the semantics of the IMS Learning Design (IMS LD) specification, a meta-language used to describe the main elements of the learning design process. The motivation of this work relies on the expressiveness limitations found on the current XML-Schema implementation of the IMS LD conceptual model. To solve these limitations, we have developed an ontology using Protege at the knowledge level. In addition, we provide its implementation in OWL, the standard language of the Semantic Web, and the set of associated axioms in first-order logic. The OWL file is available at "" (Contains 12 figures and 5 tables.)


Amorim, R.R., Lama, M., Sanchez, E., Riera, A. & Vila, X.A. (2006). A Learning Design Ontology Based on the IMS Specification. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 9(1), 38-57. Retrieved October 22, 2019 from .

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