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Memorization Effects of Pronunciation and Stroke Order Animation in Digital Flashcards

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CALICO Journal Volume 29, Number 3, ISSN 0742-7778


Digital flashcards are one of the most popular self-study computer-assisted vocabulary learning tools for beginners of Chinese as a foreign language. However, studies on the effects of this widely used learning tool are scarce. Introducing a new concept--referential stimulus--into the Dual Coding Theory (DCT) framework, this study acknowledges the existence of imagery text and textual image in addition to the conventional binary categorization of stimuli as either verbal or nonverbal and further hypothesizes their functions. The adapted DCT used in this study allowed us to better understand the findings from this and the earlier studies. In addition, a MANCOVA permitted a more thorough examination of effects of pronunciation and stroke order animation in digital flashcards on the memorization of the forms, pinyin, and definitions of the new Chinese words. Findings of this study have practical implications for development and applicability of computer-assisted language learning software. The authors conclude with a call for further research to examine the adapted DCT framework. (Contains 2 tables, 2 figures and 2 notes.)


Zhu, Y., Fung, A.S.L. & Wang, H. (2012). Memorization Effects of Pronunciation and Stroke Order Animation in Digital Flashcards. CALICO Journal, 29(3), 563-577. Retrieved November 29, 2022 from .

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