You are here:

Supporting learning using external representations

, ,

Computers & Education Volume 51, Number 4, ISSN 0360-1315 Publisher: Elsevier Ltd


External representations can be powerful for supporting learners in both individual and collaborative learning scenarios. They encourage learners to focus on important instructional elements. In this study, we investigate two different forms of external representations: textually represented collaboration scripts and graphically represented content schemes. Fifty-three triads of university students are assigned to four experimental conditions involving the factors collaboration script and content scheme. Results show that learners particularly benefit from the content scheme. Its graphical elements help focus the learners’ collaboration and they therefore achieve better outcomes.


Ertl, B., Kopp, B. & Mandl, H. (2008). Supporting learning using external representations. Computers & Education, 51(4), 1599-1608. Elsevier Ltd. Retrieved November 21, 2019 from .

This record was imported from Computers & Education on February 1, 2019. Computers & Education is a publication of Elsevier.

Full text is availabe on Science Direct:


Cited By

View References & Citations Map

These links are based on references which have been extracted automatically and may have some errors. If you see a mistake, please contact