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Designing Social Presence in e-Learning Environments: Testing the Effect of Interactivity on Children


Interactive Learning Environments Volume 14, Number 3, ISSN 1049-4820


The "computers are social actors" paradigm asserts that human-to-computer interactions are fundamentally social responses. Earlier research has shown that effective management of the social presence in user interface design can improve user engagement and motivation. Much of this research has focused on adult subjects. This study discusses the effects of social presence management in child e-learning environment development by specifically examining the role of interactivity in a computer-mediated learning environment in relation to the development of children's attitudes toward computers as well as their intrinsic motivation. A quasi-experimental methodology was adopted for this study. It was found that interactivity had a significant effect on the computer's social presence, its social attraction to children and children's involvement, and intrinsic motivation. The findings suggest that enhancing the interactivity of an e-learning environment can stimulate the presence of social actors, which in turn can enrich a children's learning experience and increase their motivation. (Contains 1 table.)


Tung, F.W. & Deng, Y.S. (2006). Designing Social Presence in e-Learning Environments: Testing the Effect of Interactivity on Children. Interactive Learning Environments, 14(3), 251-264. Retrieved October 19, 2019 from .

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