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When Static Media Promote Active Learning: Annotated Illustrations Versus Narrated Animations in Multimedia Instruction
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Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied Volume 11, Number 4, ISSN 1076-898X

Abstract

In 4 experiments, students received a lesson consisting of computer-based animation and narration or a lesson consisting of paper-based static diagrams and text. The lessons used the same words and graphics in the paper-based and computer-based versions to explain the process of lightning formation (Experiment 1), how a toilet tank works (Experiment 2), how ocean waves work (Experiment 3), and how a car's braking system works (Experiment 4). On subsequent retention and transfer tests, the paper group performed significantly better than the computer group on 4 of 8 comparisons, and there was no significant difference on the rest. These results support the static media hypothesis, in which static illustrations with printed text reduce extraneous processing and promote germane processing as compared with narrated animations.

Citation

Mayer, R.E., Hegarty, M., Mayer, S. & Campbell, J. (2005). When Static Media Promote Active Learning: Annotated Illustrations Versus Narrated Animations in Multimedia Instruction. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 11(4), 256-265. Retrieved December 8, 2019 from .

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