You are here:

Factor Structure of the TOEFL Internet-Based Test

, ,

Language Testing Volume 26, Number 1, ISSN 0265-5322


This construct validation study investigated the factor structure of the Test of English as a Foreign Language[TM] Internet-based test (TOEFL[R] iBT). An item-level confirmatory factor analysis was conducted for a test form completed by participants in a field study. A higher-order factor model was identified, with a higher-order general factor (ESL/EFL ability) and four first-order factors for reading, listening, speaking and writing. Integrated Speaking and Writing tasks, which require language processing in multiple modalities, defined the target modalities (speaking and writing). These results broadly supported the current practice of reporting a total score and four scores corresponding to the modalities for the test, as well as the test design that permits the integrated tasks to contribute only to the scores of the target modalities. (Contains 1 footnote, 4 tables, and 5 figures.)


Sawaki, Y., Stricker, L.J. & Oranje, A.H. (2009). Factor Structure of the TOEFL Internet-Based Test. Language Testing, 26(1), 5-30. Retrieved September 23, 2019 from .

This record was imported from ERIC on April 19, 2013. [Original Record]

ERIC is sponsored by the Institute of Education Sciences (IES) of the U.S. Department of Education.

Copyright for this record is held by the content creator. For more details see ERIC's copyright policy.