IJELLO Volume 6, Number 1, ISSN 1552-2237 Publisher: Informing Science Institute
Two hundred and thirty-nine elementary school teachers reported their perceived learning (cognitive and affective aspects) in four learning environments: Formal – face-to-face (teachers’ profes- sional development courses), Informal – face-to-face (teachers’ lounge), Formal – online (online teacher professional development courses), and Informal – online (teachers’ online forum). We found that perceived learning in formal learning environments was higher than in informal learning environments. The effect of communication media was also significant; teachers who communicated online reported higher perceived learning than teachers who communicated face-to-face. The interaction between formality and communication media was also significant. In the informal environments, online learners perceived their learning to be higher than face-to-face learners, whereas in formal learning environments there was no such difference. These results revealed the importance of the medium in different learning environments.
Levenberg, A. & Caspi, A. (2010). Comparing Perceived Formal and Informal Learning in Face-to-Face versus Online Environments. Interdisciplinary Journal of E-Learning and Learning Objects, 6(1), 323-333. Informing Science Institute.
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Martin Lueken, Gary Ritter & Dennis Beck, University of Arkansas, United States
Journal of Online Learning Research Vol. 1, No. 3 (December 2015) pp. 305–335
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