Knowing what you don't know makes failure productive
Learning and Instruction Volume 34, Number 1, ISSN 0959-4752 Publisher: Elsevier Ltd
To progress from intuitive ideas to deep conceptual understanding, students need to become aware of gaps in their ideas. Attempting to solve problems prior to instruction may lead to a global awareness of knowledge gaps (i.e., awareness without being able to identify which specific component is lacking). These gaps may subsequently be specified by comparing students' solutions to the canonical solution. In our first experiment, the teacher highlighted specific gaps by comparing typical student solutions to the canonical solution before or after problem solving. The second experiment varied the factors
Loibl, K. & Rummel, N. (2014). Knowing what you don't know makes failure productive. Learning and Instruction, 34(1), 74-85. Elsevier Ltd.