You are here:

Adulthood temperament and educational attainment: A population-based cohort study

, , , , , , IBS, Finland ; , Department of Clinical Chemistry, Finland ; , Department of Clinical Physiology, Finland ; , IBS, Finland

Learning and Instruction Volume 40, Number 1, ISSN 0959-4752 Publisher: Elsevier Ltd


The aim of the study was to examine the associations of temperament traits and temperament profiles (i.e., the combinations of multiple traits) with adulthood educational attainment. The participants were 837 women and 592 men from a population-based cohort study. Temperament was assessed with the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) based on the Psychobiological Model of Temperament and Character. Analyses were conducted with linear regression analyses and with analysis of variance (ANOVA). In both genders, high harm avoidance was associated with lower educational attainment. High persistence among women and high reward dependence among men were related to higher educational attainment. Novelty seeking was not associated with educational attainment in either gender. Among men explosive and methodical temperament profiles were associated with lower educational attainment while reliable and passionate temperament profiles were associated with higher educational attainment. Temperament may play an important role in lifelong learning and academic performance over different developmental transitions.


Mullola, S., Hintsanen, M., Elovainio, M., Pulkki-Råback, L., Lipsanen, J., Josefsson, K., Lehtimäki, T., Raitakari, O.T. & Keltikangas-Järvinen, L. (2015). Adulthood temperament and educational attainment: A population-based cohort study. Learning and Instruction, 40(1), 39-53. Elsevier Ltd. Retrieved May 25, 2019 from .

This record was imported from Learning and Instruction on January 29, 2019. Learning and Instruction is a publication of Elsevier.

Full text is availabe on Science Direct: