Integrating the light and dark sides of student engagement using person-oriented and situation-specific approaches
Katariina Salmela-Aro, Julia Moeller, University of Helsinki, Finland ; Barbara Schneider, Justina Spicer, Michigan State University, United States ; Jari Lavonen, University of Helsinki, Finland
Learning and Instruction Volume 43, Number 1, ISSN 0959-4752 Publisher: Elsevier Ltd
This study contributes to the research on student engagement in three ways: 1) by combining questionnaire and situational measures of engagement using the Experience Sampling Method (ESM), 2) by applying a demands-resources model to describe the positive and negative aspects of student engagement, and 3) by adopting a person-oriented approach to describe subgroups of students with different profiles of engagement and burnout symptoms. Two studies were conducted: sample one comprised 255 US high school students (45.5% female, 9th – 12th grade), and sample two 188 Finnish comprehensive and high school students (59.6% female, 9th to 10th grade). Latent profile analyses (LPA) of person-level measures of schoolwork engagement and burnout in the US and Finland revealed four profiles: 1) engaged, 2) engaged-exhausted, 3) moderately burned out (risk for burnout) and 4) burned out. These four groups were identified in both samples, but differed in their prevalence. The groups differed in their state experiences of situational demands, resources and engagement at school. Engagement is not wholly an experience of ‘flourishing’: some students experienced elevated levels of both engagement and burnout. Thus, positive and negative aspects of engagement should be studied and modeled together.
Salmela-Aro, K., Moeller, J., Schneider, B., Spicer, J. & Lavonen, J. (2016). Integrating the light and dark sides of student engagement using person-oriented and situation-specific approaches. Learning and Instruction, 43(1), 61-70. Elsevier Ltd.