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Meta-analysis of the modality effect

Learning and Instruction Volume 15, Number 4 ISSN 0959-4752 Publisher: Elsevier Ltd


This article reviews research on the modality effect, the educational practice of presenting to-be-learned graphical information visually, and related textual information through an auditory mode. Meta-analytic methods were applied to 43 independent effects (39 between-subjects designs, 4 within-subjects designs). Major hypotheses regarding the instructional benefits of presenting information across modalities were supported, including the effect of two hypothesised moderators, level of element interactivity and pacing of presentation, and between certain fields of study. The strong observed modality effect under system-paced conditions must be weighed against the additional cost of developing audio-visual instructional materials.


Ginns, P. Meta-analysis of the modality effect. Learning and Instruction, 15(4), 313-331. Elsevier Ltd. Retrieved July 16, 2019 from .

This record was imported from Learning and Instruction on January 29, 2019. Learning and Instruction is a publication of Elsevier.

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