Towards Multimodal Emotion Recognition in E-Learning Environments
Interactive Learning Environments Volume 24, Number 3, ISSN 1049-4820
This paper presents a framework (FILTWAM (Framework for Improving Learning Through Webcams And Microphones)) for real-time emotion recognition in e-learning by using webcams. FILTWAM offers timely and relevant feedback based upon learner's facial expressions and verbalizations. FILTWAM's facial expression software module has been developed and tested in a proof-of-concept study. The main goal of this study was to validate the use of webcam data for a real-time and adequate interpretation of facial expressions into extracted emotional states. The software was calibrated with 10 test persons. They received the same computer-based tasks in which each of them were requested 100 times to mimic specific facial expressions. All sessions were recorded on video. For the validation of the face emotion recognition software, two experts annotated and rated participants' recorded behaviours. Expert findings were contrasted with the software results and showed an overall value of kappa of 0.77. An overall accuracy of our software based on the requested emotions and the recognized emotions is 72%. Whereas existing software only allows not-real time, discontinuous and obtrusive facial detection, our software allows to continuously and unobtrusively monitor learners' behaviours and converts these behaviours directly into emotional states. This paves the way for enhancing the quality and efficacy of e-learning by including the learner's emotional states.
Bahreini, K., Nadolski, R. & Westera, W. (2016). Towards Multimodal Emotion Recognition in E-Learning Environments. Interactive Learning Environments, 24(3), 590-605.