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Athletic Training Student Active Learning Time with and without the Use of Bug-In-Ear Technology

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Athletic Training Education Journal Volume 12, Number 4, ISSN 1947-380X


Context: Clinical education experiences that actively engage students in patient care are important to the development of competent clinicians. It is important to assess athletic training students' time spent clinically and explore new technology that may facilitate more active learning during clinical education. Objective: To assess athletic training students' active learning time with and without the use of bug-in-ear technology. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: High school, rehabilitation clinic, and college/university clinical sites affiliated with 3 Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education--accredited undergraduate athletic training programs. Patients or Other Participants: Thirteen athletic training students (11 females, 2 males; 22.0 ± 1.8 years old, 1.8 ± 0.9 years enrolled in the current athletic training program) and 8 preceptors (5 females, 3 males; 35.4 ± 10.4 years old, 3.5 ± 2.9 years of experience as a preceptor) volunteered for this study. Intervention(s): The principal investigator observed preceptor-student interactions on 2 control days and 2 days using bug-in-ear technology. Participants and the principal investigator assessed students' active learning time at each observation period using the Athletic Training Clinical Education Time Framework. Main Outcome Measure(s): Minutes spent on instructional, clinical, managerial, engaged waiting, and down time as recorded on the Athletic Training Clinical Education Time Framework. Parametric (analysis of variance) and nonparametric (Wilcoxon signed-rank and Kruskal-Wallis) tests compared the perceived amount of time spent in each category between technologies and roles. Results: Bug-in-ear technology resulted in less time on managerial tasks (8.2% ± 5.1% versus 14.6% ± 9.8%; P < 0.01) and instruction (10.7% versus 12.7%, P < 0.01). The researcher observed significantly more unengaged waiting time than both the students and preceptors (both P < 0.01) perceived. Conclusions: Bug-in-ear technology may decrease managerial time and spoken instruction during clinical experiences. Preceptors and students significantly underestimate the amount of unengaged time spent during clinical education, which is of concern. Athletic training programs may also benefit from assessing and improving students' time spent actively learning during clinical education.


Nottingham, S.L., Montgomery, M.M. & Kasamatsu, T.M. (2017). Athletic Training Student Active Learning Time with and without the Use of Bug-In-Ear Technology. Athletic Training Education Journal, 12(4), 225-233. Retrieved January 28, 2021 from .

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