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Technology Functions for Personalized Learning in Learner-Centered Schools

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Educational Technology Research and Development Volume 66, Number 5, ISSN 1042-1629


Personalized Learning (PL) has been widely promoted. Despite the increasing interest in PL, it is difficult to be implemented, because it can be complicated, costly, and even impossible without the help of powerful and advanced technology. This national survey study aimed at systematically investigating technology usage and needs of teachers in learner-centered schools in the U.S based on the conceptual framework of the Personalized Integrated Education System (PIES). PIES specifies four major functions: recordkeeping, planning, instruction, and assessment. A total of 308 learner-centered schools were identified that met at least three of the five criteria of PL: (1) personalized learning plans, (2) competency-based student progress, (3) criterion-referenced assessment, (4) problem- or project-based learning, and (5) multi-year mentoring. Survey responses of 245 teachers from 41 schools were analyzed. Results indicate that only 12% of teachers responded that they had a technology system that integrated the four major functions. Among the rest, 21% reported that they had no such systems. Technology was most widely used for planning and instruction but not for recordkeeping and assessment.


Lee, D., Huh, Y., Lin, C.Y. & Reigeluth, C.M. (2018). Technology Functions for Personalized Learning in Learner-Centered Schools. Educational Technology Research and Development, 66(5), 1269-1302. Retrieved April 15, 2021 from .

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