You are here:

Gender awareness and pedagogical innovations in the introduction of open and distance learning (ODL) in Nepal

, Oslo and Akershus University for Applied Sciences, Norway ; , Tribhuvan University, Nepal

Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference, in Savannah, GA, United States ISBN 978-1-939797-13-1 Publisher: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE), Chesapeake, VA


This case study explores preliminary experiences and findings from an ongoing NORHED program, Improving Quality and Access to Teacher Training through Information and Communications Technology (ICT), hereafter termed QUANTICT , from 2013 to 2019. The overall aim is improving access to and quality of teacher training in Nepal through open distance learning (ODL). The program aims to deliver two master’s degree programs for teachers through ODL, one in English and the other in mathematics education. Grounded in and framed by the diverse Nepalese context, this study outlines Nepalese policies and strategies on the use of ICTs in education and in teacher training specifically, and it explores the application of technology, curriculum revisions, and pedagogical implications for enhancement of gender Equity and inclusion. Findings from a pre-pilot phase further identify how male and female students utilized ICTs as a tool for their learning purposes.


Carm, E. & Acharya, S. (2016). Gender awareness and pedagogical innovations in the introduction of open and distance learning (ODL) in Nepal. In G. Chamblee & L. Langub (Eds.), Proceedings of Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference (pp. 1681-1693). Savannah, GA, United States: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE). Retrieved March 24, 2019 from .


View References & Citations Map


  1. Björkman, C. (2002). Challenging canon: the gender question in computer science. Department of Human Work Science and Media Technology, Blekinge Institute of Technology.
  2. Carm, E., & Øgrim, L. (2013). M-learning—a potential for women’s empowerment? World Studies in Education, 14(1), 57-77.
  3. Cockburn, C. (1985). Machinery of male dominance: Men, women and technological change. Pluto Press. Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS). (2009). Nepal labour force survey 2008. Kathmandu: National Planning Commission.
  4. CBS. (2011). Nepal living standards survey 2010. Kathmandu: National Planning Commission.
  5. CBS. (2012). National population and housing census. Kathmandu: National Planning Commission.
  6. CBS. (2014). The annual household survey (AHS) 2012/2013. Kathmandu: National Planning Commission. Retrieved from
  7. Department of Education. (2013). Flash I Report. Kathmandu: Ministry of Education.
  8. Department of Education. (2014). Flash I Report. Kathmandu: Ministry of Education.
  9. Department of Foreign Employment. (2014). Labour migration for employment: A status report for Nepal: 2013/2014. Kathmandu: Government of Nepal/Ministry of Labour and Employment.
  10. Engeström, Y. (2001). Expansive learning at work: Toward an activity theoretical reconceptualization. Journal of Education and Work, 14(1), 133-156.
  11. Gadio, C.M. (2002). Case study 14: Exploring the gender impact of the world links program, summary of the findings of an independent study conducted in four African Countries. Imfundo.
  12. Gajjala, R. (2002). Cyberfeminist technological practices: Exploring possibilities for a women-centered design of technological environments.
  13. Gulati, S. (2008). Technology-enhanced learning in developing nations: A review. The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 9. Retrieved from Haddad, W.D. (2000). Is the divide digital? TechKnowLogia, 2(2). Retrieved from
  14. Information and Communication High Commission. (2010). Information technology policy 2067 (2010). Kathmandu: Government of Nepal.
  15. ITU-UNESCO. (2014). The state of broadband 2014: Broadband for all. Geneva: ITUUNESCO. Retrieved from
  16. ITU-UNESCO. (2015). The state of broadband 2015: Broadband as a foundation for sustainable development. Geneva: ITU-UNESCO. Retrieved from Kanwar, A., Ferreira, F., & Latchem, C. (Eds.). (2013). Women and leadership in open and distance learning and development. Vancouver: Commonwealth of Learning.
  17. Ministry of Education. (2007). Communication strategy for education 2063 (2007). Retrieved from Ministry of Education. (2007). Open and distance learning (ODL) policy 2063 (2007). Retrieved from
  18. Ministry of Education. (2013). Information& Communication technology (ICT) in education: Master plan 2013-2017. Retrieved from Ministry of Information and Communication. (2003). Long-term policy of information and communication sector 2059 (2003). Retrieved from
  19. Ministry of Information and Communication. (2004). Telecommunication policy 2060 (2004). Retrieved from Ministry of Information and Communication. (2015). Broadband policy 2071 (2015). Kathmandu: Government of Nepal.
  20. Ministry of Information and Communication. (2015). National information and communication technology policy 2015. Retrieved from Rahman, K.F., & Yeasmin, S. (N.D.). Risk and resilience at female learners transitions to ODL: A study on Open School of Bangladesh Open University. Retrieved from
  21. Soares, J., & Thomas, M. (2009). Leveraging ICTs for open and distance learning in nonformal education for Caribbean women: The case of St. Vincent& The Grenadines. Educaciónsuperiorysociedad /Nuevaépoca, 14(2). Taurai, D N., & J.M. (2013). Impact of using information and communication technology (ICT) in open distance learning (ODL) as an empowerment tool for women in Zimbabwe. IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science (IOSR-JHSS), 17(4). Retrieved from
  22. United Nations. (2010). The world’s women 2010: Trends and statistics. United Nations Department if Economics and Social Affairs. Retrieved from
  23. UNESCO. (2011). Global monitoring report.
  24. UNFPA. (2005). State of the world population 2005.-1692-SITE 2016-Savannah, GA, United States, March 21-26, 2016
  25. UNESCO-UIS. (2014). Information and communication technology (ICT) in education in Asia: A comparative analysis of ICT integration and e-readiness in schools across Asia. United Nations Division for the Advancement of Women. (2005). Gender equality and empowerment of women through ICT. New York: UN/Division for the Advancement of Women.
  26. University Grants Commission. (2014). Education management information system: Report on higher education 2012/13 (2069/70). Bhaktapur, Nepal: UGC.
  27. Vygotsky, L.S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. M. Cole, V. John-Steiner, S. Scribner, & E. Souberman (Eds.). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  28. Wagley, M., & Jha, A. (2013). Country Report: Nepal education in general and ICT in particular. A paper presented in UNESCO, RDTC Seminar in October 2013.
  29. Yin, R.K. (2003). Case study research: Design and methods (Applied Social Research Methods Series 5, 3rd ed.).

These references have been extracted automatically and may have some errors. If you see a mistake in the references above, please contact