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Learning Online: Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs), Connectivism, and Cultural Psychology


Distance Education Volume 34, Number 1, ISSN 0158-7919


In this reflection, we discuss the connectivist conception of learning in Web 2.0 environments, which underpins the pedagogy of what are known as cMOOCs (connectivist massive open online courses). We argue that this conception of learning is inadequate and problematic, and we propose that cultural psychology is best suited to address the explanatory challenges that Web 2.0 poses on learning, and therefore, it is also best suited to provide massive open online courses with more adequate and less problematic pedagogy. We suggest two initial and general pedagogical principles based on cultural psychology upon which to begin building this new pedagogy for massive open online courses.


Clara, M. & Barbera, E. (2013). Learning Online: Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs), Connectivism, and Cultural Psychology. Distance Education, 34(1), 129-136. Retrieved December 8, 2022 from .

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