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Effects of Picture Prompts Delivered by a Video iPod on Pedestrian Navigation

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Exceptional Children Volume 79, Number 4, ISSN 0014-4029


Transportation access is a major contributor to independence, productivity, and societal inclusion for individuals with intellectual and development disabilities (IDD). This study examined the effects of pedestrian navigation training using picture prompts displayed through a video iPod on travel route completion with 4 adults and IDD. Results indicated a functional relation between picture prompts on the video IPod and pedestrian navigation skills to and from various locations. Maintenance data indicated all participants continued navigating trained routes for up to 232 days using the video iPod. Generalization measures to untrained routes were positive. Social validity data suggested iPod training was useful and practical for teaching independent pedestrian navigation skills. Last, limitations, suggestions for future research, and implication for practice were provided.


Kelley, K.R., Test, D.W. & Cooke, N.L. (2013). Effects of Picture Prompts Delivered by a Video iPod on Pedestrian Navigation. Exceptional Children, 79(4), 459-474. Retrieved March 26, 2023 from .

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