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A Second-Order Implicit Knowledge: Its Implications for E-Learning

E-Learning and Digital Media Volume 11, Number 6, ISSN 2042-7530


The dichotomous epistemology of explicit/implicit knowledge has led to two parallel lines of research; one putting the emphasis on explicit knowledge which has been the main road of e-learning, and the other taking implicit knowledge as the core of learning which has shaped a critical line to the current e-learning. It is argued in this article that the dichotomy should be overcome by means of pointing out a second-order implicit dimension of knowledge according to which each of the two features of knowledge has an indication of the other. This Janus-faced metaphor has implications for e-learning. Accordingly, e-learning should happen within the sphere of interplay between explicit and implicit knowledge or theory and practice. In effect, any generalisation should be qualified by informing the student of idiographic aspects of the situation concerned; as any rigidity to the particularities of a situation should be modified by introducing a nomological aspect in relation to similar situations.


Noaparast, K.B. (2014). A Second-Order Implicit Knowledge: Its Implications for E-Learning. E-Learning and Digital Media, 11(6), 633-643. Retrieved April 4, 2020 from .

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