You are here:

Learning Competences in Open Mobile Environments: A Comparative Analysis Between Formal and Non-Formal Spaces

, , Universidad Nacional de Educacin a Distancia (UNED)

Open Praxis Volume 6, Number 3, ISSN 1369-9997 e-ISSN 1369-9997 Publisher: International Council for Open and Distance Education


As a result of the increasing use of mobile devices in education, new approaches to define the learning competences in the field of digitally mediated learning have emerged. This paper examines these approaches, using data obtained from empirical research with a group of Spanish university students. The analysis is focused on the experiences of students in the use of mobile devices in both formal and open-informal educational contexts. The theoretical framework of the study is based on the ecological focus applied to explanatory models of digital literacy. As a result of the data it is possible to study this framework in depth, taking into account the theories defending an open view of digital literacy. The study may be of interest to instructional designers and researchers in the fields of open educational resources and technologies applied to education in open contexts.


Dominguez, D. & Trillo Miravalles, P. (2014). Learning Competences in Open Mobile Environments: A Comparative Analysis Between Formal and Non-Formal Spaces. Open Praxis, 6(3), 235-244. International Council for Open and Distance Education. Retrieved March 26, 2019 from .

This record was imported from OpenPraxis on September 12, 2014. [Original Record]


View References & Citations Map


  1. Ala-Mutka, K. (2011). Mapping Digital Competence: Towards a Conceptual Understanding. JRC 67075—Joint Research Centre—Institute for Prospective Technological Studies. Retrieved from Bawden, D. (2008). Origins and Concepts of Digital Literacy. In C. Lankshear& M. Knobel (Eds.), Digital Literacies: Concepts, Policies& Practices (pp. 17–32). New York: Peter Lang.
  2. Belshaw, D. & Casilli, C. (2013). Mozilla Web Literacy Standard. Retrieved from
  3. Davidson, C.N. (2011). Now You See It: How Technology and Brain Science Will Transform Schools and Business for the 21st Century. London: Viking Books.
  4. Hwang, G.J., Kuo, F.R., Yin, P.Y. & Chuang, K.H. (2010). A Heuristic Algorithm for planning personalized learning paths for context-aware ubiquitous learning. Computers& Education, 54(2), 404–415. Http://,A.(2009).Willmobile learning change language learning? ReCALL, 21(2).
  5. Liaw, S.S., Hatala, M. & Huang, H.M. (2010). Investigating acceptance toward mobile learning to assist individual knowledge management: Based on activity theory approach. Computers& Education, 54(2), 446–454. Http://, G.Z. & Hwang, G.J. (2010). A key step to understanding paradigm shifts in e-learning: towards context-aware ubiquitous learning. British Journal of Educational Technology, 41(2), E1–E9. Http://
  6. Martin, A. & Grudziecki, J. (2006). DigEuLit: Concepts and Tools for Digital Literacy Development. ITALICS:Innovations. Teaching& Learning in Information& Computer Sciences, 5(4) 246–264.
  7. McLester, S. (2007). Technology Literacy and the MySpace Generation: They’re Not Asking Permission. Technology& Learning, 27, 16–22.
  8. Pachler, N., Bachmair, B. & Cook, J. (2010). Mobile learning: structures, agency, practices. New York: Springer.
  9. Pachler, N., Cook, J. & Bachmair, B. (2010). Appropriation of mobile cultural resources for learning. International Journal of Mobile and Blended Learning, 2(1), 1–21.
  10. Rheingold, H. (2012). Net Smart: How to Thrive Online. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  11. Van Deursen, A.J. (2010). Internet Skills. Vital assets in an information society. University of Twente. Retrieved from VVAA. (2013a). Mobile Education—Lessons from 35 Education Experts on Improving Learning with Mobile Technology. Studio B Productions, Inc. Retrieved from

These references have been extracted automatically and may have some errors. If you see a mistake in the references above, please contact