The effects of a self-monitoring and video self-modeling intervention to increase on-task behavior for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
Rachel Calkins Oxnard Schmitt, Indiana University, United States
Indiana University . Awarded
Children are diagnosed with AD/HD more often than any other disorder and interventions are needed in schools to increase on-task behavior. Most studies examining on-task behavior are conducted in special education classrooms or clinical laboratories. Previous studies have not combined video self-modeling and self-monitoring as an intervention to increase on-task behavior for children with AD/HD. This 14 week study compared the effects of two types of general education classroom interventions, self-monitoring and video self-modeling (VSM), to increase on-task behavior for children with AD/HD. The study included three participants in an ABCA, multiple baseline design. The phases included baseline, self-monitoring intervention, self-monitoring and VSM intervention, and maintenance. Participants were three boys, diagnosed with Combined Type AD/HD, ages 9-11, in fourth and fifth grade classrooms in a small public school in the Midwest.
The students were observed in their classrooms and on-task percentages were recorded using a whole-interval time sampling procedure. Following baseline observations, the students were video-taped in their classrooms during teacher instruction and independent seat work. During a training session, the students were taught how to self-monitor their behavior using the MotivAider device. They viewed videos of themselves exhibiting both on and off-task behaviors in order to learn how to self-monitor their behavior. After practicing, they self-monitored their on-task behavior during class to increase their awareness of their own behaviors. The MotivAider signaled random intervals with an average of 40 seconds. Then, the students noted if they were paying attention and checked a column on a worksheet. At the same time, the principal investigator was observing their behaviors and recording the accuracy levels of their reporting. Students were rewarded for levels of accuracy above 80%.
Each student was then videotaped “acting” out positive behaviors in his classroom with his teacher. Students were praised for paying attention, sitting quietly, raising their hands, not talking, and participating. These videos were edited into 2-4 minute segments to be viewed by the students twice a week for two weeks. The students viewed the positive images of themselves on video exhibiting on-task behaviors to increase their self-efficacy about their behaviors in the classroom. Percentage of non-overlapping data points was used to examine the data. Results indicated immediate and significant improvements in on-task behavior at the onset of Phase B but no significant change from Phase B to C. Analysis of PND demonstrated that the intervention was labeled “very effective.” Social validity scores from teachers and students were high. The findings from this study may be used to better understand effective interventions for children with AD/HD in the general education classroom and for future research that compares the effectiveness of VSM versus self-monitoring.
Schmitt, R.C.O. The effects of a self-monitoring and video self-modeling intervention to increase on-task behavior for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Ph.D. thesis, Indiana University.
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