Value, expectancy, metacognition, resource management, and academic achievement: A structural model of self-regulated learning in a distance education context
Joseph Tsung-Shih Hsu, University of Southern California, United States
University of Southern California . Awarded
The purpose of this study was to ascertain how well the findings of Self-Regulated Learning (SRL) generalize to the distance education context. The objective of this study was to attest the relationships among motivational beliefs, metacognitive regulated activities (e.g., planning, monitoring, and regulating), resource management behaviors, and academic achievement of Chinese distance learners in Taiwan. The theoretical framework for this study was based on two conceptual frame works: (1) The self-regulated learning theory developed by Corno, Zimmerman, Schunk, and Pintrich is the main theoretical framework relevant to this study. (2) The Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) developed by Pintrich, Smith, Garcia, and McKeachie and used in this study, is another relevant theoretical framework. Generally, the SRL research has been categorized either in "self" (personal characteristics) or in "regulation" (strategies that enhanced an individual's achievement). In this study, both "self" and "regulation" approach were adapted. Subjects consisted of two hundred and twenty-one (221) distance learners of ten (10) intact classes at the National Open University of Taiwan. One self-report questionnaire measuring learners' intrinsic goal orientation, extrinsic goal orientation, task value, control beliefs, self-efficacy, metacognition, time and environment management, effort management, and help seeking was administered in one semester; whereas academic achievement data were obtained from the mid-term and final examination scores. This study concluded that (1) value and expectancy are moderately and positively correlated with metacognition; (2) neither value nor metacognition are significantly and positively correlated with academic achievement; (3) metacognition is highly and positively correlated with resource management; (4) expectancy is moderately and positively correlated with academic achievement; and (5) resource management has no impact on academic achievement. Above all, expectancy is the most significant predicator for academic achievement.
Hsu, J.T.S. Value, expectancy, metacognition, resource management, and academic achievement: A structural model of self-regulated learning in a distance education context. Ph.D. thesis, University of Southern California.
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