A comparison of standard computer keyboard input to alternate keyboard input when using the constant time delay response prompting procedure during computerized mathematics instruction
Margaret Elizabeth Bausch, University of Kentucky, United States
University of Kentucky . Awarded
The use of assistive technology for individuals with disabilities has been supported by numerous acts of federal legislation. Most recently, P.L. 105-17 mandated assistive technology be considered for an students eligible for special education services. As a result of legislation and technological advances, the number and types of computer related assistive devices available has increased significantly. Although assistive technologies such as alternate keyboards are frequently used by teachers, and advertised in sales catalogs as appropriate for use with students in special education, early childhood, elementary education, and adults with disabilities, there is a void in research demonstrating the effectiveness of many such devices.
In this study, the effectiveness and efficiency of two keyboards, the standard keyboard and the Intellikeys Keyboard (Intellitools, 1993) were compared when used with Waiting to Learn: Math Facts, a computerized time delay response prompting procedure designed to teach math facts. Six fifth-grade students identified as having learning disabilities in mathematics were taught a total of 30 multiplication facts each, 15 with the standard keyboard and 15 with the alternate keyboard. The keys on the alternate keyboard overlay used in the study were larger than those on a standard keyboard and the overlay contained only essential number, command and student name keys.
Results indicated (a) both the standard and alternate keyboards were effective when used as computer input methods with the Waiting to Learn: Math Facts program, (b) no significant differences were found between the number of sessions to criteria on the two keyboards, (c) students had significantly more trials on the alternate keyboard, (d) students made more errors but needed less time to reach criteria on the alternate keyboard, (e) students generalized to a paper and pencil task the facts learned on the alternate keyboard at a higher rate of accuracy, (f) there were minimal differences in the maintenance of facts learned on the two keyboards, (g) students preferred using the computer rather than paper and pencil to practice multiplication facts, and (h) four students preferred using the alternate keyboard rather than the standard keyboard when using computer assisted instruction.
Bausch, M.E. A comparison of standard computer keyboard input to alternate keyboard input when using the constant time delay response prompting procedure during computerized mathematics instruction. Ph.D. thesis, University of Kentucky.
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