The effects of multimedia tutorials and observational learning on cognitive outcomes and skill acquisition in basketball
Scott Angarola, New York University, United States
New York University . Awarded
How does multimedia instruction have to be designed to enhance the acquisition of motor skills? This study investigated the effects of static vs. dynamic images and of sequencing of the instruction in a knowledge and skill acquisition environment. Participants were basketball players 12–16 years old, and completed verbal and spatial ability tests before participating in two experiments. Experiment one compared traditional coaching with two multimedia tutorials, one containing narration and concurrent animation, the other narration and static images. The tutorials showed how to complete a basketball drill called the “Star Drill”. After the instruction, the participants took written knowledge and comprehension tests, followed by a performance test on the basketball court. The multimedia tutorial groups did not show differences in knowledge and comprehension scores; however, the group that received animation scored better on skill performance tests than the group receiving static images. Experiment two therefore investigated sequencing effects for the multimedia tutorial containing the animation when combined with traditional coaching. Results showed that viewing a multimedia tutorial before traditional coaching resulted in better skill performance scores than traditional coaching before a multimedia tutorial. The multimedia tutorial before the traditional coaching was also found to be equal to successive traditional coaching instruction.
Comparing learners with high and low verbal ability and high and low spatial ability in both experiments, this study found for the static images and traditional coaching condition that learners with different abilities showed significantly different results on comprehension and skill performance tests. Implications for Dual Coding Theory, Cognitive Load Theory, Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning, and skill acquisition theories are discussed.
Angarola, S. The effects of multimedia tutorials and observational learning on cognitive outcomes and skill acquisition in basketball. Ph.D. thesis, New York University.
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