A model for design of globalized instruction for healthcare interventions in developing countries
Kim Dunleavy, Wayne State University, United States
Doctor of Philosophy, Wayne State University . Awarded
The use of globalized design for international non-profit organizations allows multiple communities to access instruction without duplication of effort. The WHO distance learning materials project for improvement of Blood Safety in developing countries was used to document a globalized design process through interviews of the design team members and document review. The validity of the process was established from an electronic survey of country representatives of 94 countries from four global regions. Adoption of the materials, outcomes, user opinions of efficacy and fit with audiences were used to reflect the external validity of the model.
The results were used to modify processes used and to present the Emmanuel and Fordham Model for Globalized Design. The model is characterized by global, regional, local, and evaluation phases, embedded within surrounding contextual factors. The model includes an initiation phase, reliance on a design team with significant expertise and international representation, extensive formative evaluation from experts, implementation and dissemination processes cascading from a global to a local level, and contextual considerations. The graphical model has deliverables for each step to assist with project management and reporting to funding agencies.
The 49% adoption rate of the materials and the reported good to extremely good fit of the materials with varied audiences supports the use of the globalized model. Reported outcomes of the use of the materials were highly satisfactory for the primary objectives of the materials; to facilitate the use of non-remunerated blood donors and to improve standards of infection testing. There were no differences in development, educational, and healthcare indicators between the countries that reported complete satisfaction and those reporting less than complete satisfaction. The sub-components that did show differences matched the needs of the less developed countries more than those with higher development levels.
A conceptual model for globalized design is also proposed. The use of a culture-neutral globalized design is appropriate to establish standards, with regional and local dissemination requiring extensive supportive planning. The pre-requisites for the use of a globalized model are content with global significance, established international standards, and minimal cultural variations of content. The localization process is built into active learning methods, translation, and allowance for modifications for technology, complexity, or local standards if needed.
Dunleavy, K. A model for design of globalized instruction for healthcare interventions in developing countries. Doctor of Philosophy thesis, Wayne State University.
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