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The "Third"-Order Barrier for Technology-Integration Instruction: Implications for Teacher Education


Australasian Journal of Educational Technology Volume 28, Number 6, ISSN 1449-5554


Technology integration is a major trend in contemporary education practice. When undertaking technology integration in classrooms, a first-order barrier and a second-order barrier, as proposed by Ertmer (1999), can hinder its implementation. The first-order barrier is external, such as lack of adequate access, time, training and institutional support. The second-order barrier includes teachers' personal and fundamental beliefs such as teachers' pedagogical beliefs, technology beliefs, willingness to change. This paper argues that the lack of design thinking by teachers may be the "third"-order barrier for technology integration.


Tsai, C.C. & Chai, C.S. (2012). The "Third"-Order Barrier for Technology-Integration Instruction: Implications for Teacher Education. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 28(6),. Retrieved July 24, 2019 from .

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