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Online Social Presence: Score Validity of the Computer-Mediated Communication Questionnaire

Quarterly Review of Distance Education Volume 9, Number 3, ISSN 1528-3518


The purpose of this study was to conduct a confirmatory factor analysis of the Computer-Mediated Communication Questionnaire scores, using structural equation modeling, to assess the consistency between the empirical data and the hypothesized factor structure of the CMCQ in the proposed models, which is stipulated by the theoretical framework and previous research. Online social presence is a vital affective learning factor that influences online interaction. In this study, online social presence was defined as the degree of feeling, perception, reaction, and trustworthiness of being connected by computer-mediated communication to another intellectual entity through electronic media. Currently, valid instruments to determine the degree of social presence felt and exhibited by online learners are wanting. The results of this study indicated that online social presence was multidimensional, and composed of 4 factors as hypothesized in the theoretical framework: social context, online communication, interactivity, and privacy, although revision of some test items was also suggested by the results. (Contains 3 tables and 3 figures.)


Yen, C.J. (2008). Online Social Presence: Score Validity of the Computer-Mediated Communication Questionnaire. Quarterly Review of Distance Education, 9(3), 297-310. Retrieved December 16, 2019 from .

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