Search results for author:"William_Winn"
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Technology, Instruction, Cognition and Learning Vol. 1, No. 1 (2003) pp. 87–114
Forms a conceptual framework for studying learning in artificial environments, i.e. computer-supported simulations of natural environments. Discusses the ideas that cognition is embodied in physical activity, that this activity is embedded in a...
Educational Communication and Technology: A Journal of Theory, Research, and Development Vol. 28, No. 2 (1980) pp. 120–33
Suggests that it is sometimes useful to consider information as being encoded as images, sometimes as language, and sometimes as propositions, and describes research that provides evidence of processing in all these forms. (Author)
Educational Media International Vol. 36, No. 4 (1999) pp. 271–79
Discusses the use of virtual environments (VEs) in teaching and learning. Examines the characteristics of effective VE in learning environments, looking at the added value produced by immersion, whereby students learn directly rather than through...
This paper focuses on graphics and how they can be created, in real time, from information stored in a database, and the application of this technique to computer-assisted instruction (CAI). It is noted that this is a special case of the general...
Educational Technology Vol. 21, No. 8 (August 1981) pp. 7–11
Reviews research related to content organization and learning and identifies some strategies for designing meaningful content organization that research has suggested might be useful to instructional designers. Forty references are listed. (Author/CHC)
Educational Technology Research and Development Vol. 54, No. 1 (February 2006) pp. 55–59
In this article, the author presents Fox (2005) argument on functional contextualism and his assessment of the current conceptual frameworks in the field of instructional design and technology. The often unquestioning espousal of constructivism in...
Educational Technology Vol. 33, No. 3 (1993) pp. 16–21
Discusses the relationship between instructional design and situated learning. The transfer of knowledge and skills to a variety of settings is considered; and ways in which instructional design can contribute to the goals of situated learning are...
Educational Communication and Technology: A Journal of Theory, Research, and Development Vol. 30, No. 1 (1982) pp. 3–25
Examines visual cognitive processes having to do with perception, the assimilation of new information, and learning by analogy, and identifies instructional strategies to control each process. Discussion of relationships between visual learning and...
Instructional Science: An International Journal of the Learning Sciences Vol. 19, No. 1 (1990) pp. 53–69
Examines some of the recent developments in cognitive theory and explores their implications for instructional design. Topics discussed include a shift from emphasis on behavioral theory to cognitive theory; task analysis; instructional objectives;...
Educational Technology Research and Development Vol. 39, No. 1 (1991) pp. 17–29
Two experiments were conducted with graduate students to test hypotheses regarding the effectiveness of diagrams in which concepts were shown spatially. Response latencies were compared for problems applying kinship rules to information presented in ...
In assessing the validity of Clark's (1983) argument that media have no real effect on learning, the fourth of four symposium papers identifies five aspects of media which might affect learning: (1) the technology used; (2) the symbol systems...
Educational Technology Vol. 32, No. 12 (1992) pp. 12–19
Discussion of the use of virtual reality (VR) to help students learn highlights the use of VR with elementary algebra. Learning theory is examined, including knowledge construction; knowledge representation is discussed, including the symbol systems ...
Virtual Reality (VR) is a computer generated, multi-dimensional, inclusive environment that can build axioms of algebra into the behavior of the world. This paper discusses the use of VR to represent part of the algebra curriculum in order to...
The Effect of the Spatial Arrangement of Simple Diagrams on the Interpretation of English and Nonsense Sentences
Educational Technology Research and Development Vol. 41, No. 1 (1993) pp. 29–41
Describes a study that was conducted with graduate students to verify empirically that the conventional spatial arrangements of diagrams illustrating relationships among concepts are interpreted consistently and to examine the role of spatial...
Educational Technology Vol. 31, No. 9 (1991) pp. 38–40
Discusses three assumptions that relate to constructivism and instructional design which are based on articles in an earlier issue: (1) an emphasis on learning rather than on performance and instruction; (2) the changing role of technology for...
Journal of Educational Computing Research Vol. 11, No. 3 (1994) pp. 211–33
Reviews research on uses of computer sound and suggests how sound might be used effectively by instructional and interface designers. Topics include principles of interface design; the perception of sound; earcons, both symbolic and iconic; sound in ...
American Educational Research Association Annual Meeting 1995 (Jul 09, 1995)
Work in the design and construction of virtual environments (VEs) is described from the standpoint of semiotic theory. It is advocated that well-constructed visual worlds can create in a person the feelings and cognitions that arise from being in...
Educational Communication and Technology: A Journal of Theory, Research, and Development Vol. 27, No. 2 (1979) pp. 148–56
This study explored the effect of grade level and sex on affective ratings of color and black-and-white pictures by having 148 students from grades 4, 7, and 12 rate color and black-and-white slides on nine semantic differential scales. (JEG)
PEER COLLABORATION and VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS: A PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION of MULTI-PARTICIPANT VIRTUAL REALITY APPLIED in SCIENCE EDUCATION
EdMedia + Innovate Learning 1999 (1999) pp. 1050–1055
In researching educational applications of virtual reality, it is now possible to place several students within a single virtual environment (VE) simultaneously. This raises questions regarding the impact of collaboration within virtual environments ...
Journal of Research in Science Teaching Vol. 43, No. 1 (January 2006) pp. 25–42
Considerable research has compared how students learn science from computer simulations with how they learn from "traditional" classes. Little research has compared how students learn science from computer simulations with how they learn from direct ...
Effects of Nonverbal Problem Solving Treatment on Skills for Externalizing Visual Representation in Upper Elementary Grade Students with and without Dyslexia
William Winn; Virginia Berninger; Todd Richards; Elizabeth Aylward; Pat Stock; Yen-Ling Lee; Dan Lovitt
Journal of Educational Computing Research Vol. 34, No. 4 (2006) pp. 381–404
Two groups of twelve dyslexic children and twelve good readers attended a two-week class during the summer following their enrollment in grades 4-6. The topic was the marine environment and focused on the adventures of an orca whale that had lost...